Tuesday, March 14, 2017

ON THE NEED TO UNIFY NEUROSCIENCE AND PHYSICS


Maurits van den Noort1,2*, Sabina Lim1, Peggy Bosch3,4

1Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, South Korea.
2Brussels Institute for Applied Linguistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
3Psychiatric Research Institute, LVR-Klinik Bedburg-Hau, 47511 Bedburg-Hau, Germany.
4Centre for Cognition, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6500 GL Nijmegen, Gelderland, The Netherlands.

 
Correspondence to: Prof. Dr. Maurits van den Noort
E-mail: info@mauritsvandennoort.com


How to cite this article: van den Noort M, Lim S, Bosch P. On the need to unify neuroscience and physics. Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2016;3:271-3. http://nnjournal.net/article/view/1855/1275

DOI:10.20517/2347-8659.2016.55

 

Neuroscience is a relatively new research field that, so far, has resulted in important progress in understanding the physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and structure of the vertebrate brain.[1] Because of this progress, spectacular technological developments,[2] i.e., positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magneto-encephalography (MEG), electro-encephalography (EEG), etc., and new treatments based on them, such as high-frequency (HR) repetitive TMS (rTMS)[3], deep brain stimulation[4], etc., have been of great use. However, despite those technical and clinical successes in neuroscience, in which the advances in physics[5] have played a substantial role, one fundamental problem is still unsolved, namely, how to unify neuroscience and physics?[6] As we will discuss in the present editorial, not only is this problem important from a purely fundamental, theoretical perspective, but it is also vital for the development of more optimal treatments in clinical neuroscience.


In recent years, we have seen fascinating new discoveries in the field of neuroscience, such as the brain’s dark energy,[7] the existence of a default mode network,[8] etc., and as a result of those discoveries, views on the human brain’s processing and functioning have been evolving. For a long time, brain function was studied by investigating physiological responses to environmental demands.[9] However, although this is an interesting approach, this is only a small part of the story because this theoretical framework does not take into account that a large part of the brain’s energy is devoted to intrinsic neuronal signaling instead of extrinsic demands.[10] Here, worthy of important note is that a miswiring of brain regions involved in the default mode has been suggested to play a significant role in various neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, etc.[10] Last year, the existence of a so-called “extrinsic mode network” was proposed.[11] This network is considered to be complementary to the default mode network; when one of them is up-regulated, the other is down-regulated. In this case, the extrinsic mode network would be responsible in tasks whereas the default mode network would be activated in task-absent situations.[11] The extrinsic mode network is conceptualized to be a cortical network for “extrinsic” neuronal activity while the default mode network is considered to be a cortical network for “intrinsic” neuronal activity. Despite the fact that these frameworks are theoretically useful, they can only explain one part of brain functioning because they do not explain how the human brain (and organism) is embedded in and connected to the world around it. In other words, a complete neurological theory of human (un)conscious brain processing should always be explainable and describable by the laws of physics because the human species is part of nature and is subject to nature’s underlying fundamental laws.



In other words, to date, the link between physics and neuroscience has been missing, so now is the time to find this missing link.[6] Many attempts have been made to build a bridge between physics and neuroscience, but somehow the puzzle remains incomplete. For instance, one of those attempts is the so-called “Orchestrated objective reduction (Orch-OR)” hypothesis,[12] but proving the existence of quantum processing in microtubules turned out to be difficult,[13] which made neuroscientists skeptical about this possible solution. In addition, many neuroscientists consider it to be a poor model of brain physiology.[14] Nevertheless, Penrose and Hameroff seem correct in their assumption[12] that a theory of everything[15] should not only fit within the laws of classical and quantum mechanics but also fit within the fundamental laws of neuroscience. Note that in fact, the human brain is a conglomeration of atomic constituents, and as a result, it should be subject to the laws of physics.[16]


However, perhaps the solution to this apparently unsolvable problem is simple; it might have to do with the way in which we describe nature and with the difference in human “conscious” versus “unconscious” brain processing. Although at the conscious level, we do not have the impression that our brain processing is connected to and interacting with the environment surrounding us, this might be the case at the unconscious level (e.g., think about the special role of the observer’s[17] (un)conscious brain processing and interaction in physics[6]). At the conscious level, we have the impression that we can only consciously interact with the environment that surrounds us, for instance, when we kick a ball, the ball will move. Humans observe themselves as an individual information processing entity not continuously interacting with and not continuously connected to the information around them (for instance, we do not notice this when we are asleep). Only the laws of classical mechanics seem to apply to us, but this cannot be the reality; it must be a human illusion. Moreover, we tend to overemphasize the importance of conscious human information processing[18] because as a matter of fact, like an iceberg where on average only 10% is visible above the surface of the water, most of the information processing during the day, and particularly during the night,[19] is done unconsciously.

To conclude, neuroscience is a relatively new research field, so many discoveries are still to be made. Moreover, further technical advancements are required because the temporal resolution of the neuroimaging techniques available today is way too slow[20] to detect any kind of quantum processing in the human brain. To date, we do not fully understand the underlying physics of the brain; consequently, we are influencing processes (for instance, when we use brain stimulation for clinical purposes in neuroscience) that we do not completely understand. A better understanding of the brain’s underlying processes is needed before those brain stimulation treatment techniques can be applied without any risks.[21] Finally, perhaps the time has come to re-think physics,[22] and although classical and quantum mechanics have helped us to describe nature; in fact, what is really needed to take the next step is to consider the whole universe/nature as simple information[23] in which the human brain/organism is only a tiny information processing system embedded in and interacting with that universe/nature.[6]
 
 
Acknowledgments
The authors thank Prof. Bruce Rosen, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA. Our mutual work on brain processing and neuroimaging was very inspiring and eventually resulted in the writing of the present editorial.

Financial support and sponsorship
Nil.

Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.

Patient consent
No patient involved.

Ethics approval
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.
 

REFERENCES
1.      Goswami U. Neuroscience and education. Br J Educ Psychol 2004;74:1-14.
2.      Bandettini PA. What’s new in neuroimaging methods? Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1156:260-93.
3.      Van den Noort M, Struys E, Bosch P. Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: a new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia? Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation 2015;2:145-52.
4.      Van den Noort M, Bosch P, Staudte H, Yeo S, Lim S. Management of movement disorders in children. Lancet Neurol 2016;15:1302.
5.      Buxton RB. The physics of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Rep Prog Phys 2013;76:096601.
6.      Van den Noort M, Lim S, Bosch P. Towards a theory of everything: the observer's unconscious brain. Retrieved from Nature [Internet] 2016 Oct. 28. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/report/index.html?comment=68881&doi=10.1038/538036a
7.      Raichle ME. Neuroscience. The brain’s dark energy. Science 2006;314:1249-50.
8.      Raichle ME. The brain’s default mode network. Annu Rev Neurosci 2015;38:433-47.
9.      Zhang D, Raichle ME. Disease and the brain’s dark energy. Nat Rev Neurol 2010;6:15-28.
10.    Raichle ME. The brain’s dark energy. Sci Am 2010;302:44-9.
11.    Hugdahl K, Raichle ME, Mitra A, Specht K. On the existence of a generalized non-specific task-dependent network. Front Hum Neurosci 2015;9:430.
12.    Hameroff S, Penrose R. Consciousness in the universe: a review of the ‘Orch OR’ theory. Phys Life Rev 2014;11:39-78.
13.    Koch C, Hepp K. Quantum mechanics in the brain. Nature 2006;440:611.
14.    Tegmark M. Importance of quantum decoherence in brain processes. Phys Rev E Stat Phys Plasmas Fluids Relat Interdiscip Topics 2000;61:4194-206.
15.    ‘t Hooft G. Susskind L, Witten E, Fukugita M, Randall L, Smolin L, Stachel J, Rovelli C, Ellis G, Weinberg S, Penrose R. A theory of everything? Nature 2005;433:257-9.
16.    Schwartz JM, Stapp HP, Beauregard M. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: a neurophysical model of mind-brain interaction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2005;360:1309-27.
17.    Schrödinger E. Die gegenwärtige Situation in der Quantenmechanik [The present situation in quantum mechanics]. Naturwissenschaften 1935;23:807-12.
18.    Bargh JA, Morsella E. The unconscious mind. Perspect Psychol Sci 2008;3:73-9.
19.    Schredl M, Atanasova D, Hörmann K, Maurer JT, Hummel T, Stuck BA. Information processing during sleep: the effect of olfactory stimuli on dream content and dream emotions. J Sleep Res 2009;18:285-90.
20.    Meyer-Lindenberg A. From maps to mechanisms through neuroimaging of schizophrenia. Nature 2010;468:194-202.
21.    Van den Noort M, Lim S, Bosch P. Recognizing the risks of brain stimulation. Science 2014;346:1307.
22.    Penrose R., editor. Fashion, faith, and fantasy in the new physics of the universe. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2016.
23.    Verlinde E. Emergent gravity and the dark universe. J High Energy Phys Submitted [arXiv:1611.02269].
 
 
 

 

Monday, January 30, 2006

SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS








"Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new." - Albert Einstein



NEWS

*Van den Noort, M., Lim, S., & Bosch, P. (2016). Towards a theory of everything: The observer's unconscious brain. Nature [Online Commenting Section] doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34011.57122 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v538/n7623/full/538036a.html

*Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Staudte, H., Yeo, S., & Lim, S. (2016). The management of movement disorders in children. The Lancet Neurology, 15(13), 1302. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30286-1 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(16)30286-1/fulltext

*Van den Noort, M., Lim, S., & Bosch, P. (2016). On the need to unify neuroscience and physics. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation, 3, 271-273. doi: 10.20517/2347-8659.2016.55 http://nnjournal.net/article/view/1855

*Van den Noort, M., Struys, E., Perriard, B., Staudte, H., Yeo, S., Lim, S., & Bosch, P. (2016). Schizophrenia and depression: The relation between sleep quality and working memory. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 24, 73-78. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2016.08.023 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876201815300770

*Bosch, P., Waberg, J., Van den Noort, M., Staudte, H., Lim, S., & Egger, J. (2016). Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among schizophrenia and depression patients. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation, 3, 109-116. doi: 10.20517/2347-8659.2015.54  http://nnjournal.net/article/view/1496

*Yeo, S., Rosen, B., Bosch, P., Van den Noort, M., & Lim, S. (2016). Gender differences in the neural response to acupuncture: Clinical implications. BMJ-Acupuncture in Medicine, 34(5), 364-372. doi: 10.1136/acupmed-2015-011025 http://aim.bmj.com/content/early/2016/05/18/acupmed-2015-011025

*Yeo, S., Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Lim, S. (2016). Ipsilateral putamen and insula activation by both left and right GB34 acupuncture stimulation: An fMRI study on healthy participants. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016: 4173185. doi: 10.1155/2016/4173185 https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4173185/

*Lee, S-H., Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Lim, S. (2016). Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16:430. doi: 10.1186/s12906-016-1405-5 https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-016-1405-5

*Bosch, P., Lim, S., Yeo, S., Lee, S-H., Staudte, H, & Van den Noort, M. (2016). Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Case Reports in Psychiatry, 2016: 6745618. doi: 10.1155/2016/6745618
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crips/2016/6745618/

*Struys, E., Consuegra, E., Somers, T., Surmont, J., & Van den Noort, M. (2016). CLIL in het hoger onderwijs: Naar geïntegreerd taal- en vakleren. Pedagogische Studiën, 93, 259-268.
http://pedagogischestudien.nl/search?identifier=620074

*Bosch, P., Van den Noort, M., & Staudte, H. (2016). Clinical Roundup: Selected Treatment Options for Movement Disorders—Part 1. Alternative and Complementary Therapies, 22(6), 269-272. doi: 10.1089/act.2016.29087.cru

*Van den Noort, M., Perriard, B., Lim, S., & Bosch, P. (2017). Why are self-rating results in patients with schizophrenia often unreliable? Psychiatry Research, 251, 76-77. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.02.009

*Bosch, P., Staudte, H., Yeo, S., Lee, S-H., Lim, S., & Van den Noort, M. (accepted). Chinese Medicine in the treatment of a male patient suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

*Bosch, P., Yeo, S., Van den Noort, M., & Lim, S. (accepted). Clinical implications of the difference in neural responses to acupuncture between male and female subjects. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.

*Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Staudte, H., Yeo, S., & Lim, S. (in revision). Commentary: Modulation of the default mode network in first-episode, drug-naïve major depressive disorder via acupuncture at Baihui (GV20) Acupoint. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.


BOOKS

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (Eds.) (2008). Schizophrenia, Sleep, and Acupuncture. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers (ISBN: 978-0-88937-355-6).
http://www.hogrefe.com/?mod=books&so=detail&buchid=1842&ka=10
Van den Noort, M. (2007). Working Memory Capacity and Foreign Language Acquisition. Bergen, Norway: Allkopi Bergen (PhD-thesis/ISBN: 978-82-308-0477-3).

Van den Noort, M. (2003). The Unconscious Brain: The Relative Time and Information Theory of Emotions. Oegstgeest: Citadel (ISBN: 90-6586-026-6).


SELECTED JOURNAL PUBLICATIONS

International Journals

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Staudte, H., & Lim, S. (2016). Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia. Annals of Internal Medicine, 164(2), 134. doi: 10.7326/L15-0483
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26784484

Surmont, J., Struys, E., Van den Noort, M., & Van de Craen, P. (2016). The effects of CLIL on mathematical content learning: A longitudinal study. Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching, 6(2), 319-339. doi: 10.14746/ssllt.2016.6.2.7 http://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/issue/view/467

Van den Noort, M., Staudte, H., Perriard, B., Yeo, S., Lim, S., & Bosch, P. (2016). Schizophrenia and comorbid sleep disorders. Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation, 3, 225-227. doi: 10.20517/2347-8659.2016.42 http://nnjournal.net/article/view/1722

Bosch, P., Van den Noort, M., Staudte, H., Lim, S., Yeo, S., Coenen, A., & Van Luijtelaar, G. (2016). Sleep disorders in patients with depression or schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial using acupuncture treatment. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 8(5), 789-796. doi: 10.1016/j.eujim.2016.06.004
 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876382016301068

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Yeo, S., & Lim, S. (2016). The challenges for research on deep-brain stimulation and memory. Brain, 139(Pt 2): e12. doi: 10.1093/brain/awv294
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26490327

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Yeo, S., & Lim, S. (2016). Emotional memory processing: Which comes first -  depression or poor sleep? Sleep Medicine, 22, 100. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2015.07.029 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1389945715009259

Bosch, P., De Rover, P., Yeo, S., Lee, S-H., Lim, S., & Van den Noort, M. (2016). Traditional Chinese Medicine in Psychiatry: The Fruit Basket Problem. The Journal of Integrative Medicine, 14(4), 239-240. doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60258-3 http://www.jcimjournal.com/articles/publishArticles/pdf/S2095-4964(16)60258-3.pdf

Bosch, P., Staudte, H., & Van den Noort, M. (2016). How you treat chronic itching with acupuncture in your practice. Medical Acupuncture, 28(4), 137. doi: 10.1089/acu.2016.29026.cpl

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Yeo, S., & Lim, S. (2015). Transcranial magnetic stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 30(14), 1973. doi: 10.1002/mds.26439

Struys, E., Mohades, G., Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2015). Cognitive control in bilingual children: disentangling effects of second language proficiency and onset age of acquisition. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 74(2), 65-73. doi: 10.1024/1421-0185/a000152

Van den Noort, M., Struys, E., & Bosch, P. (2015). Transcranial magnetic stimulation research on reading and dyslexia: A new clinical intervention technique for treating dyslexia? Neuroimmunology and Neuroinflammation, 2(3), 145-152. doi: 10.4103/2347-8659.157967 http://nnjournal.net/article/view/1111

Bosch, P., Van den Noort, M., Staudte, H., & Lim, S. (2015). Schizophrenia and depression: A systematic review on the effectiveness and working mechanisms behind acupuncture. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 11(4), 281-291. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2015.04.004

*Bosch, P., Van den Noort, M., Yeo, S., Lim, S., Coenen, A., & Van Luijtelaar, G. (2015). The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 13(6), 380-390. doi: 10.1060/S2095-4964(15)60204-7

Bosch, P., De Rover, P., Staudte, H., Lim, S., & Van den Noort, M. (2015). Schizophrenia, depression, and sleep disorders: Their traditional oriental medicine equivalents. Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, 8(1), 17-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jams.2014.06.001

Van den Noort, M., Lim, S., & Bosch, P. (2014). Recognizing the risks of brain stimulation. Science, 346(6215), 1307. doi: 10.1126/science.346.6215. 1307-a

Van den Noort, M., Struys, E., Kim, K-Y., Bosch, P., Mondt, K., Van Kralingen, R., Lee, M-K, & Van de Craen, P. (2014). Multilingual processing in the brain. The International Journal of Multilingualism, 11(2), 182-201doi: 10.1080/14790718.2013.791298
 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14790718.2013.791298#.UsrOIsuA0zs

Bosch, P., Van Luijtelaar, G., Van den Noort, M., Schenkwald, J., Kueppenbender, N., Lim, S., Egger, J., & Coenen, A. (2014). The MMPI-2 in chronic psychiatric illness. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55(5), 513-519. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12152

Yeo, S., Choe, I-H., Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Jahng, G-H., Rosen, B., Kim, S-H., & Lim, S. (2014). Acupuncture on GB34 activates the precentral gyrus and prefrontal cortex in Parkinson's disease. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 14: 336. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-336

Bosch, P., Staudte, H., Van den Noort, M., & Lim, S. (2014). A case study on acupuncture in the treatment of schizophrenia. BMJ-Acupuncture in Medicine, 32(3), 286-289. doi: 10.1136/acupmed-2014-010547

Cardeña, E., Bem, D., Carr, B., Cloninger, C.R., Jahn, R.G., Josephson, B., ... Van den Noort, M., et al. (2014). A call for an open, informed study of all aspects of consciousness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00017
http://www.frontiersin.org/journal/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00017/full

Bosch, P., van Luijtelaar, G., Van den Noort, M., Lim, S., Egger, J., & Coenen, A. (2013). Sleep ameliorating effects of acupuncture in a psychiatric population. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013: 969032. doi:10.1155/2013/969032 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/969032/

Bosch, P., van Luijtelaar, G., Groetelaers, L., Van den Noort, M., Lim, S., Egger, J., & Coenen, A. (2012). The Munich Parasomnia Screening in Psychiatry. Somnology - Sleep Research and Sleep Medicine, 16(4), 257-262. doi: 10.1007/s11818-012-0587-4

Mondt, K., Struys, E., Van den Noort, M., Balériaux, D., Metens, T., Paquier, P., Van de Craen, P., Bosch, M.P.C., & Denolin, V. (2011). Neural differences in bilingual children's arithmetic processing depending on language of instruction. Mind, Brain, and Education, 5(2), 79-88.

Van den Noort, M., & Bosch, P. (2011). Schizophrenia-related outpatient treatment of Medicaid-financed patients after hospital discharge. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(1), 113. doi: 10.4088/JCP.10lr06511yel

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Struys, E., & Van de Craen, P. (2011). Is there a unique relation between a deficit of deviance detection and schizophrenia? Psychiatry Research, 188(2), 299. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.03.008

Hadzibeganovic, T., Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Perc, M., Van Kralingen, R., Mondt, K., & Coltheart, M. (2010). Cross-linguistic neuroimaging and dyslexia: A critical view. Cortex, 46(10), 1312-1316. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2010.06.011

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Mondt, K., & Lim, S. (2010). Progressive volume reduction and its relation to the different stages of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 117(1), 99-100. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2009.12.033

Van den Noort, M., & Bosch, P. (2010). The twilight of dementia. The Lancet, 376(9752), 1537-1538. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62023-5

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Kueppenbender, N., Mondt, K., Van de Craen, P., Yeo, S., & Lim, S. (2010). Verbal working memory capacity in patients with chronic schizophrenia, chronic depression, and healthy participants. European Psychiatry, 25(S1), 106.

Bosch, P., Ronan, P., Quinton, N., Harbinson, D., & Van den Noort, M. (2010). First European studies on acupuncture and schizophrenia: First results. European Psychiatry, 25(S1), 34.

Mondt, K., Balériaux, D., Metens, T., Paquier, P., Van de Craen, P., Van den Noort, M., & Denolin, V. (2009). An fMRI study of level of proficiency as a predictor of neurocognitive convergence for L1/L2 during a lexicosemantic task in a paediatric population. Second Language Research, 25(1), 107-134.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Mondt, K., & Lim, S. (2009). Improving verbal memory performance in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(12), 1412.

Van den Noort, M., Specht, K., Rimol, L.M., Ersland, L., & Hugdahl, K. (2008). A new verbal reports fMRI dichotic listening paradigm for studies of hemispheric asymmetry. NeuroImage, 40(2), 902-911. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.11.051

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Haverkort, M., & Hugdahl, K. (2008). A standard computerized version of the reading span test in different languages. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 24(1), 35-42.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Van Kralingen, R. (2008). Aging and verbal working memory capacity. International Journal of Psychology, 43(3-4), 479.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Van Kralingen, R. (2008). Conscious and unconscious processing of emotional words. International Journal of Psychology, 43(3-4), 227.

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2008). Sleep disorders in patients with schizophrenia: A review. International Journal of Psychology, 43(3-4), 73.

Van den Noort, M., & Bosch, P. (2008). The new standard computerized reading span test and the early detection of dementia. European Psychiatry, 23(S2), 198-199.

Van den Noort, M., & Bosch, P. (2008). Schizophrenia: What do we know from functional magnetic resonance imaging? European Psychiatry, 23(S2), 55.

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2008). Schizophrenia: Is therapy involving early warning symptoms and antipsychotics successful? European Psychiatry, 23(S2), 104.

Van den Noort, M. (2007). Invisible stimuli and visual attention deficits (E-letter to the editor). Science. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/eletters/314/5806/1786#9802

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2007). Insomnia and its role in schizophrenia. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 257(S1), 27.

Van den Noort, M., & Bosch, P. (2007). MRI. Scientific American, 3, 6 (Dutch edition).

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2007). Quantum information theory and the human brain: The special role for human unconscious information processing. Journal of Consciousness Studies (S), 77.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity. European Psychologist, 11(4), 289-296.
http://content.apa.org/journals/epp/11/4/289

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2006). Terrorism and health services utilization. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(12), 2198. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/163/12/2198-a

Van den Noort, M., & Bosch, P. (2006). Brain cell chatter. Scientific American Mind, 17(5), 4-5.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). Left caudate and language control (E-letter to the editor). Science. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/eletters/312/5779/1537#3899

Van den Noort, M., Haverkort, M., Bosch, P., Specht, K., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). A verbal dichotic listening study on early stage second language learners of Norwegian: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 31(S1), 35.

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2006). Sleep disorders in elderly patients with schizophrenia: A review. Psiquiatria Clínica, S1, 70-71.

Van den Noort, M., Hugdahl, K., & Bosch, P. (2005). Human machine interaction: The special role for human unconscious emotional information processing. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 3784, 598-605.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/yw304204h6lm5448/

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2005). Understanding the unconscious brain: An ERP-study on emotions. NeuroImage, 26(S1), 28.

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2005). Neuroimaging and acupuncture: A comprehensive meta-analysis. NeuroImage, 26(S1), 63.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2005). Aging: Early detection of verbal working memory problems. International Psychogeriatrics, 17, 273.

De Hoop, H., Haverkort, M., & Van den Noort, M. (2004). Variation in form vs. variation in meaning. Lingua, 114, 1071-1089.

De Hoop, H., Haverkort, M., & Van den Noort, M. (Eds.) (2004). Lingua. Special issue on variation in form and variation in meaning. Haarlem: Gottmer.

Van den Noort, M. (2004). Unconscious information processing of emotions: Non-linear processing. International Journal of Psychology, 39, 69-70.

Van den Noort, M. (2004). Unconscious information processing of emotions: Non-linear processing. NeuroImage, 22(S1), 27.

Vingerhoets, G., Van Borsel, J., Tesink, C., Van den Noort, M., Deblaere, K., Seurinck, R., Vandemaele, P., & Achten, E. (2003). Multilingualism: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 20(4), 2181-2196.

Vingerhoets, G., Van Borsel, J., Tesink, C., Van den Noort, M., Seurinck, R., Deblaere, K., Vandemaele, P., & Achten, E. (2003). Object naming in mother tongue versus non-native languages in multilinguals reveals different patterns of lateralization: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 19(2), 2726-2727.

Tesink, C., Van den Noort, M., Vandemaele, P., Deblaere, K., Van Borsel, J., Vingerhoets, G., & Achten, E. (2002). Processing of multiple languages in the brain: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 16(2), 309-310.

National Journals

Bosch, P., Staudte, H., & Van den Noort, M. (2014). Acupunctuur bij de behandeling van schizofrenie. Huang Ti, 37(3), 17.

Bosch, P., & Van den Noort, M. (2012). Acupunctuur en hersenactiviteit. Tijdschrift voor Integrale Geneeskunde, 27, 67-73.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). De rol van beeldvormende technieken in tweede-taalonderzoek. Tijdschrift voor Neuropsychologie, Diagnostiek, Behandeling en Onderzoek, 2, 16-23.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). Schizofrenie: fMRI onderzoek met het dichotisch luister-paradigma. NeuroPraxis, 10(3), 87-90.


SELECTED CONFERENCE/BOOK PUBLICATIONS

Papers

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., Hadzibeganovic, T., Mondt, K., Haverkort, M., & Hugdahl, K. (2010). Identifying the neural substrates of second language acquisition: What is the contribution from functional- and structural MRI? In J. Arabski & A. Wojtaszek (Eds.), Neurolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition (pp. 3-16). Toronto, Canada: Multilingual Matters.

Van den Noort, M., & Bosch, P. (2008). Schizophrenia: What do we know from neuroimaging research? In P. Bosch & M. Van den Noort (Eds.), Schizophrenia, Sleep, and Acupuncture (pp. 16-34). Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.

Van den Noort, M., & Hugdahl, K. (2008). Multilingual processing of relative clauses and foreign language proficiency. In M. Gibson, B. Hufeisen, & C. Personne, Multilingualism: Learning and Instruction (pp. 61-76). Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren.

Hadzibeganovic, T., Van den Noort, M., Cannas, S. A., Bosch, P., Johnsson, G.K., & Magnusson, M.S. (2008). The missing neurocognitive and artificial general intelligence bases of robocup research: What still needs to be done before 2050? Proceedings of the Austrian RoboCup Workshop 2008 (pp. 1-4). Villach, Austria.

Van den Noort, M., Hugdahl, K., & Bosch, P. (2007). Unconscious emotional information processing: Theoretical consequences and practical applications. In J. Cardoso, J. Cordeiro, & J. Filipe (Eds.), ICEIS 2007 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (pp. 207-214). Funchal: INSTICC.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2007). Conscious and unconscious processing of emotional words. In S. Vosniadou, D. Kayser, & A. Protopapas (Eds.), Proceedings of the European Cognitive Science Conference 2007 (pp. 208-213). Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2007). Multilingual processing of relative clauses. In F. Mansouri (Ed.), Second Language Acquisition Research: Theory Construction and Testing (pp. 225-246). Newcastle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2006). Looking at second language acquisition from a functional- and structural MRI background. In R. Sun & N. Miyake (Eds.), Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2293-2298). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. http://www.cogsci.rpi.edu/CSJarchive/Proceedings/2006/docs/p2293.pdf

Van den Noort, M., Nordby, H., Bosch, M.P.C., & Hugdahl, K. (2005). Understanding second language acquisition: Can structural MRI bring the breakthrough? Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognitive Systems. New Delhi: NIIT. http://www.niitcrcs.com/iccs/papers/2005_24.pdf

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2005). Understanding the role of working memory in second language acquisition. In K. Opwis and I.-K. Penner (Eds.), Proceedings of KogWis05 The German Cognitive Science Conference 2005 (pp. 144-149). Basel: Schwabe.

Van den Noort, M., Bosch, P., & Hugdahl, K. (2005). Understanding the unconscious brain: Evidence for non-linear information processing. In B.G. Bara, L. Barsalou, & M. Bucciarelli (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2254-2258). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. http://www.psych.unito.it/csc/cogsci05/frame/poster/2/f398-vandennoort.pdf